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alum and ferric chloride pros cons and substitutes using method

  • Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes

    2017-10-18 · What are some substitutes for alum and ferric chloride? Substitutes include other aluminum and iron salts, like sodium aluminate and ferric sulfate, but these may or may not work. Proprietary products, instead of commodities, may offer a better solution. For example, a few products from ATS Innova’s ATS 800 line are excellent substitutes for alum and ferric chloride: ATS 835 is a great replacement for alum because it does an amazing job, but with …

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  • ferric chloride pros cons production companies

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes. The price can fluctuate. The components used to make ferric chloride, whether the iron or the hydrochloric acid, go up and down quite a bit in price, which can greatly affect the price of ferric chloride itself. Currently, ferric chloride users are facing cost increases potentially as high ...

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  • white aluminium chloride water treatment chemicals

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for. As every water treater knows, coagulants are used in the first step of water treatment; they destabilize the water so micro flocks can begin to form. This is followed up by a polymer, which turns it into a larger flock by creating a bigger charge.

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  • what is the advantage of polyelectrolytes as a ...

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes. ATS 806 removes much more total organic carbon than either alum or ferric chloride. And while it may be a bit more expensive than the ferric, the amount needed is roughly only 25% of the amount of ferric required, so it’s often the same price or cheaper—with a better water quality as the outcome.

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  • A Comparison Of Aluminum And Iron-based Coagulants

    2020-10-13 · Ferric chloride and ACH were observed to obtain the highest DOC (85% and 70%, respectively) and color (98% and 97%, respectively) removals at the lowest dose concentrations (120 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively).

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  • Coagulation and Rapid Mixing - Oregon

    2020-6-27 · Ferric chloride (FeCl3) is the most common iron salt used to achieve coagulation. Its reactions in the coagulation process are similar to those of alum, but its relative solubility and pH range differ significantly from those of alum. Both alum and ferric chloride can be used to generate inorganic polymeric coagulants. These

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  • use of ferric sulfate as a coagulant for water treatment

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes 2017-10-18· For example, a water treater who feeds 25 parts of alum (or a related product) might get away with feeding just 2-3 parts of ATS 835. And because ATS 835 is completely soluble, it will hardly increase solids due to the coagulant.

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  • anaerobic bacteria agent using polyaluminium

    Organics removal and enhanced coagulation are effective with traditional coagulants like aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride and ferric sulfate, as well as formulations like polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and acid alum. Acid alum formulations are aluminum sulfate with 1 to 15-percent free sulfuric acid.

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  • effect of polyaluminium chloride on phosphorus

    Effects of polyaluminium chloride addition on community. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) was added into the biological phosphorus removal (BPR) systems to investigate the populations of polyphosphate and glycogen accumulating organisms (PAOs and GAOs). Typical BPR performed under Al:P of 1:1, while BPR almost disappeared at Al:P of 4:1.

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    2019-12-1 · pros and earn money playing video games make living while gaming cons of capitalism. Alum And Ferric Chloride Pros Cons make money taking paid survey get paid online surveys paypal And Substitutes For Treating Water . alum and ferric make money promoting websites online businesses you! can chloride pros cons and substitutes

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  • Alum_Ferric_Chloride_Substitutes - ATS Innova: Water ...

    Alum_Ferric_Chloride_Substitutes. by ATS Senior Editor | Oct 24, 2017 get your free consultation. OR TALK TO A TECHNICAL CONSULTANT NOW. 855.215.4600. Search for: Get Expert Advice Contact Me. Recent Posts. The Uncomfortable Reality of Unclean Drinking Water;

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  • Pros and Cons of Wastewater Treatment Methods:

    2019-4-16 · Chemical coagulation is a well known method of particle coagulation. This process warrants the addition of a number of chemical additives to achieve the desired destabilized state. Alum, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Ferrous sulfate, and Lime are some of the additives used to neutralize the charged particles.

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  • A Comparison Of Aluminum And Iron-based Coagulants

    2020-10-13 · Ferric chloride and ACH were observed to obtain the highest DOC (85% and 70%, respectively) and color (98% and 97%, respectively) removals at the lowest dose concentrations (120 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively).

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  • Coagulation and Rapid Mixing - Oregon

    2020-6-27 · Ferric chloride (FeCl3) is the most common iron salt used to achieve coagulation. Its reactions in the coagulation process are similar to those of alum, but its relative solubility and pH range differ significantly from those of alum. Both alum and ferric chloride can be used to generate inorganic polymeric coagulants. These

    Get Price
  • Phosphorus Removal Analysis - WWOA

    • Alum (aluminum sulfate), sodium aluminate • Calcium (lime) • Ferric chloride, ferric sulfate and ferrous chloride Chemical treatment is the most common method used for phosphorus removal to meet effluent concentrations below 1.0 mg/L.

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  • free project report of ferric alum - feuerwehr

    Alum and Ferric Chloride Pros Cons and Substitutes for . Oct 18 2017 · It should be noted that both ATS 835 and 806 are potentially excellent replacements for alum or ferric chloride—it s all dependent on the chemistry. To help you determine which replacement product to try ATS offers free jar testing. To schedule your free jar test call .

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  • Pros and Cons of Wastewater Treatment Methods:

    2019-4-16 · Chemical Coagulation. Chemical coagulation is a well known method of particle coagulation. This process warrants the addition of a number of chemical additives to achieve the desired destabilized state. Alum, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Ferrous sulfate, and Lime are some of the additives used to neutralize the charged particles.

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  • USING POLYALUMINIUM COAGULANTS IN WATER

    2017-8-1 · Polyaluminium chloride solution (10% Al2O3) is stable for 4 to 5 months when stored at less than 50oC and is so ideal for bulk storage and dosing installations. One possible disadvantage in using ACH/PACl relates to the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water. It is well documented that effective DOC removal is possible with alum,

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    2019-12-1 · Alum And Ferric Chloride Pros Cons make money taking paid survey get paid online surveys paypal And Substitutes For Treating Water . alum and ferric make money promoting websites online businesses you! can chloride pros cons and substitutes. Robo how to create a recharge website earn money recharge php script mobgyan Investment Advice The Pros ...

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  • Reagents for the preparation of acid chlorides: pros

    2008-6-9 · Thionyl chloride is popular because it's cheap, relatively stable, fairly safe to handle, and gives only gaseous byproducts. As you note, it is pretty selective in what it reacts with, which is nice (it means you can really push the system - using neat thionyl chloride and heating it, if need be - to persuade unreactive functional groups to cooperate, without too much risk to the rest of your ...

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  • best sales ferric chloride in wastewater treatment in ...

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes. The price can fluctuate. The components used to make ferric chloride, whether the iron or the hydrochloric acid, go up and down quite a bit in price, which can greatly affect the price of ferric chloride itself. Currently, ferric chloride users are facing cost increases potentially as high ...

    Get Price
  • Wastewater Treatment Methods Pros and Cons:

    2019-4-16 · Chemical coagulation is a well known method of particle coagulation. This process warrants the addition of a number of chemical additives to achieve the desired destabilized state. Alum, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Ferrous sulfate, and Lime are some of the additives used to neutralize the charged particles.

    Get Price
  • Pros and Cons of Wastewater Treatment Methods:

    2019-4-16 · Chemical Coagulation. Chemical coagulation is a well known method of particle coagulation. This process warrants the addition of a number of chemical additives to achieve the desired destabilized state. Alum, Ferric chloride, Ferric sulfate, Ferrous sulfate, and Lime are some of the additives used to neutralize the charged particles.

    Get Price
  • FERROUS CHLORIDE HAZARD SUMMARY Ferrous Chloride

    2012-6-18 · * On skin contact with Ferrous Chloride, immediately wash or shower to remove the chemical. * Do not eat, smoke, or drink where Ferrous Chloride is handled, processed, or stored, since the chemical can be swallowed. Wash hands carefully before eating, drinking, smoking, or using the toilet. * Use a vacuum or a wet method to reduce dust during ...

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  • USING POLYALUMINIUM COAGULANTS IN WATER

    2017-8-1 · Polyaluminium chloride solution (10% Al2O3) is stable for 4 to 5 months when stored at less than 50oC and is so ideal for bulk storage and dosing installations. One possible disadvantage in using ACH/PACl relates to the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water. It is well documented that effective DOC removal is possible with alum,

    Get Price
  • Advanced Water Treatment Concepts

    2011-9-9 · 4. Polyaluminum chloride (PAC): Polyaluminum chloride, known as PAC, is a blend of chemicals that can achieve the same (or better) coagulant results as alum. It was manufactured to eliminate some of the pH and alkalinity adjustments that are necessary when using traditional coagulants. The cost of the PAC blend is lower than the combined

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  • aluminum react with calcium chloride using method

    The method of generating an aqueous solution of … For example, when using a form of implementation of the proposed method, represented by the circuit of Fig. 4, a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide may be reintroduced in reexpose obtain an aqueous solution of sodium chloride from the flue gases, containing hydrogen chloride and heavy metals, comprising contacting gases with powdered

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  • Using High-Rate Clarification Processes to Optimize

    2005-6-1 · Coagulant (alum, ferric chloride, etc.) is added to the raw water in a coagulation tank. The coagulated water then enters the second tank, called the injection tank, where polymer and mirosand are added. In this tank, the microsand serves as a “seed” and provides a large contact area for floc formation.

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  • Reagents for the preparation of acid chlorides: pros

    2008-6-9 · Thionyl chloride is popular because it's cheap, relatively stable, fairly safe to handle, and gives only gaseous byproducts. As you note, it is pretty selective in what it reacts with, which is nice (it means you can really push the system - using neat thionyl chloride and heating it, if need be - to persuade unreactive functional groups to cooperate, without too much risk to the rest of your ...

    Get Price
  • FINAL Phosphorus Webinar Compiled Slides with Notes

    • Chemical method uses alum or ferric chloride to precipitate phosphorus Levels down to 0.02 mg/L PO 4-P (as P) • EBPR uses PAO’s to uptake phosphorus Levels down to 0.07 mg/L orthophosphates (PO 4-P) Levels down to 0.3 mg/L total PO4-P without filters • Methods often used in combination 15 16 Composition of a Cell Results in

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  • In the News - ATS Innova: Water Treatment |

    2017-2-6 · Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes. Oct 18, 2017 | Blog. How are alum and ferric chloride used in water treatment? As every water treater knows, coagulants are used in the first step of water treatment; they destabilize the water so micro flocks can begin to form. This is followed up by a polymer, which turns it into a...

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  • best sales ferric chloride in wastewater treatment in ...

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes. The price can fluctuate. The components used to make ferric chloride, whether the iron or the hydrochloric acid, go up and down quite a bit in price, which can greatly affect the price of ferric chloride itself. Currently, ferric chloride users are facing cost increases potentially as high ...

    Get Price
  • Pros And Cons Of Wastewater Treatment Methods

    2020-3-13 · Chemical coagulation is a well known method of particle coagulation. This process warrants the addition of a number of chemical additives to achieve the desired destabilized state. Alum, ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and lime are some of …

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  • APPENDIX 2A: Review of Recent Studies and Trials on ...

    2003-2-24 · A 2.1.1.1 This appendix examines the pros and cons of using various chemicals (e.g. FeCl3, alum etc) for the Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment (CEPT) process. ... optimum chemical dosing rates for ferric chloride and anionic polymer under different flow ... a range of potential sources for alum.

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  • Advanced Water Treatment Concepts

    2011-9-9 · 4. Polyaluminum chloride (PAC): Polyaluminum chloride, known as PAC, is a blend of chemicals that can achieve the same (or better) coagulant results as alum. It was manufactured to eliminate some of the pH and alkalinity adjustments that are necessary when using traditional coagulants. The cost of the PAC blend is lower than the combined

    Get Price
  • ALKALINITY ADDITION: THEORY AND BEST PRACTICE

    Ferric Chloride 0.93 Ferric Sulphate 0.53 Aluminium Sulphate 0.51 Chloride 1.41 Fluoride 2.08 Carbon Dioxide 0 It should be noted that carbon dioxide does not decrease alkalinity. It adds more carbonic acid to the system which in turn lowers the pH because the shifting carbonate species rations to …

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  • Coagulant Action In Mining - feldmann-rechtsanwalt.de

    Alum And Ferric Chloride Pros Cons And Substitutes . ATS 835 is a great replacement for alum because it does an amazing job, but with a much, much smaller dose. For example, a water treater who feeds 25 parts of alum or a related product might get away with feeding just 2-3 parts of ATS 835.

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  • Belt Conveyors vs Screw Conveyors in Wastewater

    2008-6-9 · Thionyl chloride is popular because it's cheap, relatively stable, fairly safe to handle, and gives only gaseous byproducts. As you note, it is pretty selective in what it reacts with, which is nice (it means you can really push the system - using neat thionyl chloride and heating it, if need be - to persuade unreactive functional groups to cooperate, without too much risk to the rest of your ...

    Get Price
  • FERROUS CHLORIDE HAZARD SUMMARY Ferrous Chloride

    2012-6-18 · * On skin contact with Ferrous Chloride, immediately wash or shower to remove the chemical. * Do not eat, smoke, or drink where Ferrous Chloride is handled, processed, or stored, since the chemical can be swallowed. Wash hands carefully before eating, drinking, smoking, or using the toilet. * Use a vacuum or a wet method to reduce dust during ...

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  • 1.4: Coagulation and Flocculation - Workforce LibreTexts

    2016-4-19 · Comparison of disinfection alternatives. Delivered hypo versus on-site generated hypo. Khalil Kairouz. Apr 19th, 2016. Totojang/iStock. Chlorine is purchased commercially as gaseous chlorine, liquid sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite (solid). Chlorine gas, still the most common form of disinfectant, has been recognized as a potential ...

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  • The disadvantages of polyaluminium chloride

    2013-1-29 · have developed a method for using an electronegative filter in conjunction with aluminium or magnesium and have had success in concentrating and recovering human norovirus from 250 to 500 ml of MilliQ water (186%), tap water (80%), bottled water (167%), river water (15%) and pond water (39%).

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  • 3. Wastewater treatment

    History of water treatment. In ancient Greek and Sanskrit (India) writings dating back to 2000 BC, water treatment methods were recommended. People back than knew that heating water might purify it, and they were also educated in sand and gravel filtration, boiling, and straining.

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  • Ferric chloride dosage calculation' Keyword Found

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Atsinnovawatertreatment.com DA: 27 PA: 43 MOZ Rank: 90. The components used to make ferric chloride, whether the iron or the hydrochloric acid, go up and down quite a bit in price, which can greatly affect the price of ferric chloride itself

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  • drinking Water treatment: iron removal - Degremont®

    2005-6-1 · Coagulant (alum, ferric chloride, etc.) is added to the raw water in a coagulation tank. The coagulated water then enters the second tank, called the injection tank, where polymer and mirosand are added. In this tank, the microsand serves as a “seed” and provides a large contact area for floc formation.

    Get Price
  • Using High-Rate Clarification Processes to Optimize

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for . Atsinnovawatertreatment.com DA: 27 PA: 43 MOZ Rank: 74. Alternatively, if a water treatment plant is using ferric chloride, a recommended replacement product is ATS 806; This product is not only a successful replacement but also offers a much better quality of water for the same ...

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  • Ferric chloride in drinking water treatment' Keyword

    2009-7-2 · are subject to chloride attack from ocean spray, and highways in large metropolitan areas become “political lighting rods” when lanes are taken out of service for any reason. The use of polyester polymer concrete to overlay deteriorated wearing surfaces has become the method of choice where chloride

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  • FRP Material Selection Guide - Reichhold

    • Chemical method uses alum or ferric chloride to precipitate phosphorus Levels down to 0.02 mg/L PO 4-P (as P) • EBPR uses PAO’s to uptake phosphorus Levels down to 0.07 mg/L orthophosphates (PO 4-P) Levels down to 0.3 mg/L total PO4-P without filters • Methods often used in combination 15 16 Composition of a Cell Results in

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  • FINAL Phosphorus Webinar Compiled Slides with Notes

    2017-10-3 · Ferric Chloride (FeCl 3) as Coagulant:. Removal of both arsenite and arsenate present at different initial concentrations were evaluated for different doses of ferric chloride 25.After addition of a particular dose of a coagulant (ferric chloride), the water in the bucket was mixed with a wooden stick, first vigorously for about 30 to 60 seconds and then slowly (approximately one turn of the ...

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  • INTRODUCTION - ajrconline.org

    Aluminium chloride is mainly produced using an exothermic reaction of two elements namely aluminium and chlorine. There are several other ways in which aluminium chloride can be obtained. Some common ways are by reacting aluminium metal with hydrogen chloride or by conducting a single displacement reaction between copper chloride and aluminium ...

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  • difference between aluminium chlorohydrate and

    2016-4-19 · Comparison of disinfection alternatives. Delivered hypo versus on-site generated hypo. Khalil Kairouz. Apr 19th, 2016. Totojang/iStock. Chlorine is purchased commercially as gaseous chlorine, liquid sodium hypochlorite or calcium hypochlorite (solid). Chlorine gas, still the most common form of disinfectant, has been recognized as a potential ...

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  • Comparison of disinfection alternatives | Water Tech

    PROCEDURE: 1. Pour a sample of untreated wastewater into a beaker (ex 300 ml). While mixing, adjust the pH using caustic soda or sulfuric acid to the optimum pH for hydroxide precipitation of mixed metals, i.e. pH 8.5. 2. While stirring the sample, use an eyedropper to add the precipitant until the ORP value drops rapidly by 150mV (typically to ...

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  • how to use poly aluminum ferric chloride product

    Alum and Ferric Chloride: Pros, Cons, and Substitutes for ... PAC is not a single product, but an entire spectrum of versatile inorganic polymers. PAC's are characterized by two primary numbers: their strength (usually in % alumina, or Al2O3), and their basicity. Basicity gives a general idea of the amount or degree of polynuclear material in ...

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  • Matrix Lesson - agclassroom.org

    PBRs may operate using the batch method wherein the entire system is cleared at each harvest or a continuous cycle in which harvesting and growth occur indefinitely. ... such as alum and ferric chloride, to cause the algae to clump up into larger and larger clusters. ... discuss some of the pros and cons of using biofuel from algae rather than ...

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  • Understanding Alkalinity | Treatment Plant Operator

    2017-10-3 · Ferric Chloride (FeCl 3) as Coagulant:. Removal of both arsenite and arsenate present at different initial concentrations were evaluated for different doses of ferric chloride 25.After addition of a particular dose of a coagulant (ferric chloride), the water in the bucket was mixed with a wooden stick, first vigorously for about 30 to 60 seconds and then slowly (approximately one turn of the ...

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  • INTRODUCTION - ajrconline.org

    2009-7-2 · are subject to chloride attack from ocean spray, and highways in large metropolitan areas become “political lighting rods” when lanes are taken out of service for any reason. The use of polyester polymer concrete to overlay deteriorated wearing surfaces has become the method of choice where chloride

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  • FRP Material Selection Guide - Reichhold

    facility using ferric chloride addition to the ... alum feeding equipment for phosphorus re moval. The plant was designed for an ultimate average daily flow of 8 000 m3/d (2.1 mgd), ... reduction method. To obtain total phosphorus, the persulfate digestion method was employed

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  • Evaluation of In-Line and Side-Line Flow Equalization

    difference between aluminium chlorohydrate and aluminium zir Chemtrade Logistics Inc. – Hyper+Ion® Hyper + Ion ® is a tradename for Chemtrade's aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH), polyaluminum (hydroxy)chloride (PACl), polyaluminum chlorosulfate (PACS), and aluminum chloride based product line.

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  • difference between aluminium chlorohydrate and

    2021-6-3 · The western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. These evaporites were mainly FeAl2(SO4)4 . 22H2O, MgAl2 (SO4)4 . 22H2O etc. The presence of sulphuric acid in potassium alum was known to the alchemists since the time of Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber) who discovered sulphuric acid in the 8th century. J.H Pott and

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